Joanna Rose T. Laddaran

Article 30 of the UN Charter on the Rights of the Child, where the Philippines is a signatory, declares, “In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practice his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.”

 However, as observed by McEachern (2010), “the vernaculars have been consistently excluded from educational settings, and have even been outright banned”. [1] In particular, McEachern and Calinawagan (2010) cite that “there is currently no formal Iloko instruction at any level of schooling in La Union, not as a medium of instruction and not even as a subject”.

In response, the Department of Education (DepEd) has started institutionalizing the use of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) through DepEd Order No. 74, s. 2009. MTB-MLE is defined in the order as “the effective use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction”. According to the EducNews (2012), the official publication of DepEd, in SY 2010 to 2011, DepEd has piloted the implementation of MTB-MLE in 879 public elementary schools. More recently, DepEd Order No. 16, s. 2012 claims that 921 schools including those for children of indigenous people have been modeling MTB-MLE. Also thru DepEd Order No. 16, s. 2012, DepEd has mandated that starting SY 2012-2013, MTB-MLE shall be implemented in all public schools, specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 as part of the K to 12 Basic Education Program.

 At present, Iloko (or Ilocano) is the 3rd largest language in the Philippines. However, many parents—especially in urban areas among the middle and upper class—prefer to speak to their children in Filipino or in English rather than in their mother tongue. There are those who prefer to speak Filipino even when they are spoken to in Ilocano. When asked why, others answer that the use of Ilocano is too “native” – indicating that the word “native” has been associated to mean something “inferior”. These are instances of undervaluing one’s linguistic identity, and further, one’s cultural identity as a whole.

 As Arzadon (2010) noted, our language is a major part of our identity. Language defines who we are.[2]  While the role of mother tongue-based education in shaping and affirming students’ linguistic and cultural identities is cited informally as one advantage of MTB-MLE, it has received little academic attention on its own.  Rather, studies on mother tongue-based instruction usually involve describing its effectiveness on formative tests in the core subjects English, Math and Science.

 In view of these, this study seeks to examine the role of mother tongue education in preserving one’s cultural identity. Specifically, it aims to find out how MTB-MLE affects children’s perceptions of their mother tongue, and their Ilocano identity in general. It also seeks to provide information to help amend education and language policy in order to get the maximum benefit from the mother tongue and other languages.

[1] McEachern, F. M. (28 July 2010).  Losing the Mother Tongue. Sun Star Baguio newspaper.

[2] Arzadon, Maria Mercedes. (16 September 2010). Comment on “No longer cool to speak Iloko” by Firth McEachern (9 September 2010), Sun Star Baguio newspaper. <;.

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In this paper, we will look into the issue of ability grouping and tracking practices in school as a medium to create social stratification. Participant students from a secondary public school in Bulacan were asked to answer a survey with details of their socio-economic status. And teachers were interviewed about the difference in the instruction given to the last section from the first section of a particular fourth year level.
Social stratification, socio-economic status, tracking, ability-grouping.
As early as enrolment period, parents as well as students are already looking forward to what section their children will belong to. As for the students, they are looking forward to their section because they wanted to know who will be their classmates and if they have a friend in the same section. But behind this sectioning is another hidden agenda of grouping the students not only by their abilities but also by social status. Through tracking or ability grouping we will know who are intelligent and well-to-do from the slow learners and poor. The objective of this paper is to analyze how the tracking/ability grouping can foster inequality among students.
After the first day of the school, the first thing a parent will ask from his/her child is “What‟s your section this year?” and the reaction will be a disappointment or a surprise. From early graders to secondary levels all students are grouped into sections and as a matter of fact every section has its own label such as for the top class will have “cream section”, “star section”, and all the good names that you can mention while if it‟s the bottom class they will be labeled as the “poor performing class”, “teachers enemy”, “a pool of problem students”, “latak”, “ang future tambays” and other negative labels that you can think of. These labels are product of the sectioning that school administrators do each school year. And once they are already in their 

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section the socialization that happens inside that section mold the students‟ personality, aspirations, and academic achievements. There are students who used to be of a behaved attitude seems to change as they become members of a certain group or section. In the public schools where there is more number of students yet less classrooms, they have a lot of sections that reaches up to 30th and with more than 50 students for each class. The most achievers are grouped together in a section and known as the section one. And then the rest to be heterogeneously grouped but unintentionally students other than the first section were grouped according based on academic and non-academic factors.With these situations, we can see the „unintentional‟ creation of a discriminatory and segregated system in school. Just like in the United States before and some at present that all white students were able to make it to the best schools while the minority in the inferior schools and programs (Newton 1990).  

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Jose Antonio R. Martinez


When a common man-on-the-street is asked “What profession should a gay individual pursue?” chances are he or she will answer “make-up artist” (think Fanny Serrano or Ricky Reyes), “fashion designer” (Renee Salud or Inno Sotto) or “comedian” (Vice Ganda or Allan K.).  We really cannot blame them.  The way media depicts the generic gay or “bakla” as a swishy, colorful and boisterous bird-of-paradise is not only stereotypical, it is also limiting, discriminating, and in a large part, misleading.  Members of the LGBT (Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgenders) community have already made their presence felt, not just in art, fashion and entertainment, but have also infiltrated other branches of society, like business, politics and yes, even the academe. 

This paper attempts to look at gays who have chosen education as their profession.  Putting aside the “bird-of-paradise” image, I will hopefully unveil another face of the “bakla,” one that is intelligent, scholarly, and compassionate enough to take on the laborious and oftentimes thankless job of teaching.  What is it that made them choose this particular occupation?  Has their sexual orientation been a help or a hindrance?  How do the school officials/students/co-teachers treat them?  Through research and interviews, I will try to answer these and other more probing questions regarding the lives of gay teachers, and delve into their experiences, hopes, fears and beliefs.  As a proud member of the gay community who is now seeking a Master’s degree in Special Education, one might think that this study will be riddled with my personal biases.  But my objectivity will be more beneficial to me in the long run, for I will be hitting two birds with one stone:  gaining a deeper understanding of what it is like to be a gay teacher, and preparing me for what lies ahead. (Read more…)

Patricia Evidente-Alba


          Based on current estimates, it costs more than a hundred thousand pesos per annum for an individual with disability to afford needed interventions. The services of a Developmental Pediatrician, an Occupational Therapist, and a Physical Therapist are among the more important professionals they receive interventions from. The purpose of this study was to find out how poor Filipino families with CWDS managed to raise their children. Ten indigent families were interviewed. Topics touched on covered types of disabilities, types of interventions and/or alternative interventions received. Also covered were their personal beliefs on the cause of their child’s disability and family income in relation to education received by their CWDs. Findings showed that due to financial constraints, parents resorted to alternative interventions like informal education at home and using massage as a form of therapy.  

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Jeffrey Salazar


Since the conception  of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997, and its improvement in 2004, more and more children with disabilities are entering the classroom setting. However, it has become quite a challenge in terms of meeting special needs of these children. Under the provisions of 2004 IDEA, every student must be provided an education that is free and, more importantly, appropriate (Nolet & McLaughlin, 2000). In order to ensure appropriateness, a deep understanding of the child and his experiences is necessary. Models of disability provide context in understanding how persons with different impairments experience their condition. Among all models, it is the Social Model that greatly empowers the disabled themselves as it seeks to change the mindset of the society by understanding the experiences of persons with disabilities from their own perspective (Albrecht & Sielman, 2001). Unfortunately, although a lot of attempts have been made to promote the Social Model of disability in different articles and researches, very few have actually taken personal accounts from the disabled themselves. Even fewer have focused on children and the implications of childhood disability (Connors & Stalker, 2007.) 


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Gessa S. Fernandez, Kriselda Kaye C. Jorge, & Jennifer Q. Reyes

The study aims to find out challenges faced by adult learners transitioning from Alternative Learning System to Higher Education. Purposive sampling was used to identify eight participants. Data was gathered through the use of survey questionnaire and interview. The results show that among the many difficulties encountered by the respondents in higher education, time management emerged as the most challenging.

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Arlene R. Mercado

The Philippines is a disaster-prone country and related literature on the effects of calamities and disasters to Filipino children’s education is still limited. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the effects inflicted by Typhoon Ondoy to education based on narratives of 12 elementary public school children in Marikina City. The children were asked what they remember about Ondoy, how their studies were affected, coping methods and lessons learned
from the disaster. It is hoped that the results of this study will help children, families, schools and communities be more prepared in the face of calamities and disasters.
On September 26, 2009, Tropical Storm Ondoy brought torrential rains swelling Marikina River to a historic level of 23 meters. Three-meter flood rushed into Marikina residences and establishments as well as into other communities, trapping people in their homes, in buildings, and leaving thousands stranded on the streets. The tropical storm’s heavy rainfall rampaged thru other parts of Luzon affecting 4.8 million people
and damaging property amounting to P11 billion (Aragones, 2009; Calonzo, 2011; Ondoy’s ‘tips’ spare Marikina from deaths in Falcon floods, 2011).
More than two years after “Ondoy,” in December 2011, Typhoon Sendong
(Tropical Storm Washi) left 1,257 casualties from various regions in Visayas and Mindanao. National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) reported that of the ten destructive tropical cyclones which hit the country in 2011, TS Sendong had the most number of deaths, with the cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan in Region X suffering the brunt (2011 Top 10 Philippine Cyclones). Then on February 6, 2012, “a strong local earthquake of tectonic origin occurred offshore Negros Oriental, with a preliminary magnitude of 6.9 Mb.” The earthquake affected 63,697 families in
two provinces in Region VII. Of the casualties, there were 51 deaths, 112 injured and 62 missing as of February 18, 2012 (NDRRMC Update Sitrep 20 on Negros Earthquake, 2012). Kreps (1984 cited in Toomey, B. G. and Christie, D. J., 1990) defined disasters as “events, observable in time and space” affecting societies by incurring losses and damages to properties and disrupting “routine functioning.” Countless calamities and disasters had struck the country claiming lives and bringing so much destruction. The
Philippines is indeed a disaster-prone country, according to the Centre for Research and Epidemiology Disasters (See, 2010). Aside from its location between the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea where tropical storms usually develop, the country also sits on the “Pacific Rim of Fire.” An average of 21 storms and typhoons hit the country every year. Meanwhile, there are 23 active volcanoes and 26 others which are potentially active. (Background: Philippines an Explosive Mix for Deadly Disasters, 2011). In the light of possible future natural calamities, it is deemed necessary that
people are more prepared in facing such disasters.
Since Marikina City was one of the hardest hit by TS Ondoy in 2009, the study
focused on its effects to education of children attending an elementary school. First, the experiences of the children were recalled as well as how the typhoon affected their education. Next, the coping methods used by the teachers to help the children were identified. Lastly, we noted the lessons learned in connection with their experiences. To protect the identity of the students and other research participants, the names of the interviewees, including school and barangay, are fictitious.
Purpose of Study
The study aims to answer the following questions:
1) What were the effects inflicted by Typhoon Ondoy to education particularly to elementary students in Marikina City?
2) What coping methods were employed to help the children thru their experiences?
3) What lessons can be gleaned from such experience of disaster?

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Isabelo Miguel R. Castro III

Our world is getting smaller and smaller through various technological  advancements, people are more aware of the various religions, government, languages, and cultures that are present in different parts of the world. This
phenomenon is called globalization. The paper will be discussing the various negative implications of globalization in developing countries like the Philippines. The researcher initiated a participant observation in one
private school in Quezon City, Philippines, to discuss the different claims about globalization. During the research process the impacts of globalization were slowly emerging as the research went deeper into understanding the
said phenomenon. It was observed that the social roles of Filipino students are slowly degrading due to the inculcating effect of globalization or what some academes call capitalism. It was concluded that globalization is a threat to developing and under-developed countries. It is an occurrence that is irreversible and what negatively affected countries can do is to minimize the effects and maximize the benefits

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Bienvenido R. Gruba III (MA Langauge Education)


I am a teacher in  a school that teaches English as a Second Language (ESL) to Korean learners of all ages.  The school opened in 2005 at Don Antonio, Fairview Quezon City. Its owner is a Korean. All the teachers are Filipinos–able to speak both Filipino and English.

There is a policy called, the English only policy or EOP that enforces Filipino teachers to speak only English at all times. They must use only English when transacting–borrowing a book – and socializing –small talks during breaks. Management wants to make the English immersion environment of the students consistent: mixing in Filipino will decrease the frequency of students encounter with English. Code-switching –or mixing the use of two language when communicating while in school is seen as harmful to the student’s second language acquisition.

This policy is only applied to teachers not students. Although students are discouraged by their teachers to speak Korean, there is no existing policy that formally forces them not to speak their mother language.

In my five years of work in EZ Academy, I have always wondered how we –as Filipinos –thought and felt about this policy. Do we think the policy is good and reasonable? Do we feel it attacks our National language?

These personal wonderings triggered the start of this research.


In May 2007 Stephanie Armour reported in USA Today that some immigrant employees are suing their companies on discrimination charges for enforcing an English only policy in the workplace. Ronna Timpa, owner of Workplace ESL Solutions agrees saying: “Employers go too far in adopting strict policies that prevent co-workers from talking in their native language even during lunch.” American employement Lawyer Amy Mcandrew defends the EOP saying: ““This is becoming a much bigger issue. Employers want to have policies because of safety and customer service, but they have to be careful not to be discriminatory.”  

Braun Consulting Group –an American personnel and labor relations management consultancy company viewed the EOP both as a problem and an opportunity: In their 2004 Summer news letter they reported that on one hand the EOP can linguistically unite multicultural employees and reduce the tension that multiple language brings; on the other hand, it can be discriminatory –especially if lunch breaks are included –and can diminish the opportunities brought by a multi-lingual workforce e.g. learning a foreign language.

In the our country the EOP have become well known through call centers that have boomed in the last decade since 2000. Roberto L. Bacasong, 27 -a Customer Interaction Associate – wrote in ezine that agents are required to speak English while inside the company at all times. He defends the EOP as a necessary policy to ensure agents perform their job effectively. In the end, he praises the English fluency of call-center trained Filipinos –indirectly reinforcing the necessity of the EOP.

Jam Mayer-Flores another call center agent praised the EOP and even complained about one company that did not strictly implement it. In an essay entitled, “English only policy” that she posted in she complains with a disparaging tone that some agents are “Tagalogers” –people who use Tagalog to explain technical content to co-workers. She tried to convince management to undo this wrong behavior but her efforts were futile.

The responses of these Call center agents are totally different from the ones USA Today reported. Companies don’t get law suits filed against them because of the EOP. Also in all of my five years of work as an ESL professional, I have not heard nor read a single complain on the EOP within the place where I work nor in other schools across the nation.

Is EOP then a good thing or a bad thing? However, it’s clear that EOP is will always be an issue anywhere on Earth where English has come as the language of the workplace. However, this paper will try to clear up the benefit or harm of this policy to Filipino employees. In the end, it will be determined whether the study’s respondents deem the EOP as discriminatory or a necessity for work –thus is neither good nor bad. Also, the respondents’ code-switching behavior will be described as it gets to be influenced by EOP.

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Karen Cecille C. Dumaslan


In this paper, we explore OPM and how it can impart informal learning to those who listens to it. Participants are asked to answer two questions in relation to the Filipino music they think help cultivate their culture and helps them
into understanding their identity as a Filipino. The first part of the research examines the nature of music in general and OPM, the relationship of society and music and the second part as the transmission of learning through OPM, analysis and conclusion.

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